Young people are often, therefore, characterized as imprudent and irrational in relation to decisions about alcohol consumption, substance abuse, crime, and so forth (Kemshall, 2008: 22) and are blamed and punished accordingly. For instance, Yoder suggests that the modern, individual life course is now less predictable in Japan (Giddens, 1991, 2001) and that the development of a “risk society” (Beck, 1992, 1999, 2006) has impacted negatively on the young, who are so often seen as either at risk or as posing a risk (Armstrong, 2004, 2006). Some Japanese authors, such as Sugimoto (2003, p. 2), agree and argue that Japanese citizens are only unusual in believing that their nation is so unique. As with probation volunteer adults, these are mostly older people who have spare time (Ellis et al., 2011). (2013). Leiden: Brill.Find this resource: Foote, D. (1992). Japan’s juvenile justice system reflects a western parens patriae-type orientation with an emphasis on rehabilitation, protection, and the overall well-being of the accused child. Since then, Honjo (2014) has highlighted the increasing public willingness to sentence juvenile offenders with harsher punishments, including the death penalty. It is perhaps significant that the Supreme Court’s Legal Training and Research Institute of Japan (2006) also found that 90 percent of judges tended to prefer a more cautious approach to juvenile cases, viewing age as a mitigating factor, compared to the more punitive public view (Inagaki and Tanaka, 2010). He is critical of the type of argument that Schwertfeger and Zimring (2013) have made because they uncritically accept the centrality of wa (harmony) and cultural homogeneity in reducing the level of conflict and deviant behavior in Japan to a much lower level than in Western countries. The contemporary picture that emerges is of a hardening of rhetoric, policy, and legislation for juveniles in Japan, yet over the same period youth offending has plummeted and adult offending has provided a much bigger contribution to overall recorded crime. Youth Justice is an international, peer-reviewed journal that engages with the analyses of juvenile/youth justice systems, law, policy and practice around the world. (eds.) It was established early in Western Europe and late in Japan. Overall, we found a clear precedence of social welfare over criminal policy considerations. Consequences and new tasks for probation of the widely expected lowering of the age of criminal adulthood are also considered. We have used only the White Paper (2014) figures throughout to maintain consistency. They had netted an estimated ¥400,000,000 (£2.3 million; Japan Times, 2014a). 51% of young people whose first sentence was detention returned to sentenced supervision before turning 18 On an average day in 2018–19, 5,694 young people aged 10 and over … In a comparative context then, Japan, perhaps not surprisingly, has a complex set of jurisdictions over juveniles and outcomes for young people. “The Myth of Japanese Uniqueness Revisited.” Nissan Occasional Paper Series, No. Admittedly, the 2012 White Paper is only the third such report, but if it is considered as the continuation of the previous White Papers on youth (not then required by law), the reports date back to 1956. As Figure 11 shows, most juveniles actually imprisoned through adult courts have been in the 18 to 19 age group, varying from 78 percent in 2000 to 98 percent in 2011, with a much smaller number in the 16 to 17 age group. 164, 1947).14 Social welfare agencies can also refer juveniles directly to CSRSs, with parental permission, under Articles 26 and 27 under the Child Welfare Act without recourse to the Family Court. Bohan kai members patrol their neighborhoods with an interest, inter alia, in detecting perceived deviant youth behavior such as underage drinking and smoking (Yoder, 2011, p. 22). These assessments are used to decide whether a Family Court hearing is appropriate, and even if appropriate, whether outcome options other than criminal justice options are appropriate. Teachers and police also carry joint patrols to “catch young people who are misbehaving” (Yoder, 2011, p. 22). Should this be enacted, it will have a profound change on the picture of juvenile justice we have presented here. University of Hawaii.Find this resource: Yoder, R. S. (2004). (6) “Risk, Governance and the New Public Health.” In Foucault, Health, and Medicine, edited by A. Petersen and R. Button. April 10, 2014. http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/04/10/national/crime-legal/its-me-scam-rings-up-408-million-for-three-teens/#.VxWX8_9f33h, Japan Times. No death sentences were passed, despite two offences of homicide. In this chapter, a brief overview of the justice system as it applies to youths is provided, as well as a description of the transition process youth experience as they return back to their communities from a Juvenile Training School. These raw figures show that between 2000 and 2012, the 9 percent drop in cleared penal code offences overall has been entirely due to the 48 percent drop in juvenile offending, which was offset somewhat by the 25 percent increase (to 221,901) in adult offences. Regional video game industry revenues http://vgsales.wikia.com/wiki/Video_game_industry, (10) Appendix (Table), Number of juveniles conclusively disposed in family courts for juvenile protection cases by type of delinquency and type of disposition. At this point, it is very important to be aware that Japanese criminal justice statistics in the annual White Papers are compiled in an esoteric way, which can easily lead to miscalculations. As in many countries, Japanese juvenile justice has developed relatively independently of adult justice. However, in 1967, parens patriae was challenged in the United States and was rejected as a sound doctrine on which to base youth justice (NCJRS, 1999, p. 90). White Paper on Crime, Part 3/Chapter 2/Section 1/2: Procedure in family courts. See Note 2 of Table 3-15 referred to earlier. This is important in both systems as victims are mostly witnesses to crime and the treatment, and role of compensation can, depending on how it is administered affect not only direct victims of crime, but also those close to them and future witnesses. Nihon no Chian wa Saisei Dekiru ka (Can Japan Revive Public Order?). We will argue here that in Japan, this is not dependent on whether criminal justice agencies are involved or not. Leiden: Brill.Find this resource: 法務省法務総合研究所編『犯罪白書』平成17年~26年版の資料「少年保護事件 家庭裁判所終局処理人員」による. Were made in 1996, 2002, 2010 and 2014 that appear specifically Japanese Springer-Verlag.Find this resource: Ames W.... September 1993 as the next section shows established according to the picture here is much reduced as can be,... Offer an overview of recent developments in youth courts new York: Wiley.Find resource! 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